Terrestrial; stem elongated, erect to decumbent; internodes 0.4 – 0.6 cm long. Prophylls and cataphylls reddish and vinaceous when young, brownish to chestnut when old, entire to slightly decomposed at the apex, decomposed to fi bers at base of the stem, 2.0 – 3.8 x 1.4 – 1.9 cm. Sheath 1.5 – 1.7 cm long. Petiole fl at with acute to carinate margins, with a distal central rib adaxially, 2-ribbed on proximal direction becoming acute at the distal direction abaxially, 7.1 – 9.6 x 0.4 – 0.5 cm; geniculum vinaceous, thicker than the petiole, fl attened with ribbed margins adaxially, 1 – 2-ribbed abaxially, 1.3 – 1.6 cm long. Leaf blade elliptic to lanceolate, membranaceous to subchartaceous, coriaceous when dry, acute at apex, cuneate at base, with strongly contrasting colors on the two surfaces (upper surface dark green, lower surface light green), 40.9 – 44.4 x 7.2 – 9.6 cm; midrib vinaceous or lighter than the blade adaxially, obtuse at the base, rounded and prominent on the middle becoming acute at the apex adaxially, 1-ribbed becoming rounded at the apex abaxially; primary lateral veins impressed adaxially, lightly prominent abaxially, 17 – 18 on both sides, arched, darker than the blade abaxially, forming an angle of 30 – 40 ° with the midrib at the leaf base, 20 – 30 ° in the middle, 30 – 45 ° at the apex; infra-marginal collective vein starting from the leaf base or, more rarely 2.8 cm above it, 0.2 – 0.7 cm from margin; peduncle 1-ribbed, vinaceous, 13.9 – 28.1 x 0.3 cm. Spathe membranaceous, vinaceous, linear-lanceolate, refl exed during anthesis and in fruit, 5.5 – 7.0 x 0.6 – 0.8 cm, forming an acute angle with the peduncle, decurrent to 0.8 cm. Spadix sessile, cylindrical, tapered, vinaceous during anthesis, brownish post-anthesis and in fruit, 5.5 – 9.7 x 0.3 – 0.5 cm, with 4 – 5 fl owers visible per principal spiral and 6 visible per secondary spiral. Tepals vinaceous until anthesis, brownish at the apex, becoming greenish towards the base post-anthesis and in fruit, dorsally acute, internally convex; lateral tepals 2.50 – 2.51 x 1.50 – 2.00 mm, tepals anterior/posterior 1.5 – 2.0 x 1.0 – 1.1 mm. Filaments fl attened, 1.50 – 1.75 x 0.55 – 0.80 mm; anthers dorsifi xed, extrorse, 0.40– 0.45 x 0.45– 0.55 mm. Gynoecium globose with vinaceous sessile stigma; ovary bi-locular, with one ovule per locule and axial placentation; funicle glabrous, 1.50 – 2.60 x 0.55 – 0.60 mm. Berries with green and vinaceous apex when imature, greenish at the apex, becoming translucent on the base when mature; seed rounded, lenticulate, yellowish.
Anthurium viridivinosum is ‘ Critically Endangered ’ (CR, B1ab (ii, iii, v) + 2ab (iii, v)) in accordance to IUCN (2001) categories and criteria. In this category are species facing a high risk of extinction in the wild, with extent of occurrence < 100 km ² , area of occupancy < 10 km ² , heavily fragmented, known from a single location, with continuing decline inferred from the number of mature individuals and steady decline in habitat quality. Although great eff ort was made to collect other specimens along the coastal area in the Espírito Santo state, the new species is so far only known from the type locality. The species current distribution add value to the restinga remnants, especially in areas where the littoral plains is less developed on the base of the cliffs (Albino et al. 2006), and adds important recognition to public politics that created the Wildlife Refuge of Santa Cruz (RVS Santa Cruz). Besides being inserted in a conservation unit, the restinga fragments and the lowland rainforest on this region have extremely high importance to biodiversity conservation, suffering threats such as native vegetation suppression and real estate expansion on the coast line (Brasil 2007). Anthurium viridivinosum is the ninth species of Anthurium distributed along the restingas in Espírito Santo (Valadares et al. 2010, Haigh et al. 2011), and the description of this new species highlights the priority actions proposed by IPEMA (2011), that includes floristic inventories to survey for future adjustments in conservation actions in the state. Living material of this new species is being grown at Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo.
A species of Anthurium sect. Urospadix (Engler) subsect. Flavicentiviridia (Engler) and most similar to A. intermedium Kunth, but differs by its median region of the central vein adaxially rounded, the apex of the central vein abaxially rounded and berries translucent towards the base.
Habitat and distribution Anthurium viridivinosum occurs in an ecotone between the dry bush formation of restinga (Pereira 2003) and the dense rainforest in the lowlands (Veloso et al. 1991). Individuals were also found in shoreface, developing in leaf litter deposited on the terraces of a lateritic abrasion (Fig. 2).